Oregano is a plant utilized as a spice in numerous regions of the world due to its characteristic sensory attributes of flavor, color, and aroma. The use of oregano. This study evaluated growth patterns of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri) under salt stress and tested the hypothesis that this species is salt tolerant. J Food Prot. Dec;74(12) doi: / Antifungal activity evaluation of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer).
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The difference between CMC and starch polymers is the beelandieri of the antimicrobial compounds mainly thymol and carvacrol present in MOEO. Inhibition berlamdieri of Staphylococcus aureus at different concentrations of Mexican oregano Lippia berlandieri Schauer essential oil and pH values added to CMC a 0.
Moreover, it can be observed that, for both kinds of edible films, pH values of 5 and 6 are more effective than 7. In this case, two main components of MOEO are thymol and carvacrol whose pH dissociation values are acidic 4. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and plant extracts is well known for a long time, and many research results have been published against food-borne pathogens [ 1 ] and about their low toxicity to mammals, fewer environmental effects, and low cost, which make them more attractive than synthetic antimicrobials [ 2 ].
In addition, its chemical, physical, and functional characteristics make them suitable to add essential oils EOs as antimicrobials [ 10 — 12 ]. The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Carvacrol 5-isopropylmethylphenol and thymol 2-isopropylmethylphenol berlandiegi the major components of the essential oils of some species belonging to the Lamiaceae family including oregano, and these are phenolic compounds; isomers of monoterpenes exhibit significant antimicrobial activity in vitro [ 67 ].
In this report, the kind of polymer chain and pH affects the release of antimicrobial MOEO compounds due to many factors such as electrostatic interactions, osmosis, structural changes, and environmental conditions [ 732 ].
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Therefore, future investigations should be conducted for the application of CMC and starch as edible coatings with MOEO in food to confirm their antibacterial effect and mechanical and sensory properties. Edible Film Preparation Films were made according to the Bertuzzi et al.
Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Then, sorbitol Aldrich Chemical Co. As observed, when MOEO concentration increased, a rapid microbial inactivation was observed, while at lower concentrations, the inactivation presented a remarkable nonlinear kinetics. All tests were run in triplicate. San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Col. However, many reports mentioned that, for proper operation of active edible films, the optimal pH should be considered at which the antimicrobial agent may have a state of dissociation that allows better antimicrobial activity.
To receive news and publication updates for Journal of Food Quality, enter your email address in the box below. Natural antimicrobial compounds effectiveness depends on the type, genus, species, and strain of the target microorganism and some food intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as pH, temperature, water content, atmospheric composition, and initial microbial load, with pH being one of the most important factors due to antimicrobial dissociation [ 3 ].
Researchers around the world are investigating the use of essential oils to protect food from microbial growth. One inconvenience of EO direct application on surfaces by dipping, powdering, or spraying is that antimicrobial compounds can be neutralized or diffuse rapidly from the surface into the product [ 30 ].
Inhibition curves of Listeria monocytogenes at different concentrations of Mexican oregano Lippia berlandieri Schauer essential oil and pH values added to CMC a 0. Survival curves for both microorganisms are presented in Figures 1 and 2.
Among them, carboxymethyl cellulose CMC and starch S are the most widespread and economic biomaterials. Our results demonstrate that edible films can serve as carriers releasing EO onto the surface controlling bacterial growth and reducing diffusion into the agar since the EO chemically forms part of the structure of the film and interacts with the polymer and the plasticizer [ 31 ].
Thus, adequate pH values can change the membrane permeability and disintegrate the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria releasing lipopolysaccharides. Antimicrobial assay was performed.
Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. Microbial Strains of L. Based on their traditional use, these extracts obtained from plants are first recommended, due to their berlandjeri antimicrobial action and low side effects treatments [ 3 ].
Microbial modeling allows estimating the effects of berlandifri intrinsic factors such as pH on CMC and starch edible films added with MOEO, showing a synergistic effect between EO concentration and pH, so these films might have the potential to inhibit the surface growth of pathogenic microorganisms in food by being suitable carriers of EO in different food applications.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of pH and Mexican oregano essential oil concentration added to CMC and S edible films on Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Food Quality. Moreover, there are evidences that EOs incorporated to edible films can inhibit a large variety of food-borne berlandierk [ 1315 — 19 ]. MOEO was incorporated at 0.
Inhibition curves were fitted to the Fermi model. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The main advantage of using EOs in a polymer matrix coating is a slow diffusion of the antimicrobial agent, leaving high concentrations of the active compound in contact with the food surface where contamination has occurred or is likely to occur, for a long period [ 20 ].
Currently, research has been focused on the use of edible films due to their safety regarding consumption and friendly relation with the environment, and coating materials being used currently include polysaccharides cellulose derivatives, starch, chitin, and gumsproteins soy, milk, gelatin, corn zein, and glutenand lipids oils, waxes, and resins [ 9 ].
Introduction Researchers around the world are investigating the use of essential oils to protect food from microbial growth. Materials and Methods 2. Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Fermi model biological parameters values at different concentrations of Mexican oregano Lippia berlandieri Schauer essential oil and pH values added to CMC and starch edible films.
Microbial modeling has allowed estimating key intrinsic factors as pH and MOEO concentration with the synergistic effect against two important food-borne pathogens. Statistical analyses were performed with Minitab 17 software Minitab Inc.
Moreover, the Fermi model can explain and predict microbial reduction in all tested pathogens and is suitable to describe inactivation in similar matrices and under different operating conditions in the future [ 26 ]. MOEO chemical analysis showed that the two major compounds were thymol 2. This model describes a sigmoid decay and generates two biological parameters and between pH and MOEO concentration Table 1.
Data were fitted to the Fermi model [ 23 ] from which the biological parameters and were estimated by nonlinear regression using the KaleidaGraph 3.
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Moreover, these authors pointed out that EO effectiveness is influenced by the sensitivity of the microorganism. Essential oils also have the additional effect of maintaining the quality of the food during storage, including sensorial, nutritional, llppia functional properties [ 45 ]. Therefore, CMC releases more active compounds.