Folliculogenesis and oogenesis are important events preceding the release of the mature oocyte (ovulation), as well as for in vitro oocyte maturation, which is. Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. Pgs. (Campbell). Spermatogenesis. Production of sperm. Continuous and prolific; Each ejaculation.
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Support Center Support Center. The vacuolar proton pump, V-ATPase, is required for notch signaling and endosomal trafficking in Drosophila. The effort to make mosaic analysis a household tool.
A genome-wide transgenic RNAi library for conditional gene inactivation in Drosophila. Illuminating the path of intercellular exchange through ring canals. Reversible response of protein localization and microtubule organization to nutrient stress during Drosophila early oogenesis. The movement and anchoring of these maternal mRNAs are active areas of research that benefit from the ability to do live-cell imaging to reveal conserved mechanisms of mRNA localization [ 2526 ].
As mentioned oogennesis Section 1. After completing mitosis, escort cells are exchanged for follicle cells to complete stage 1 egg chamber assembly. Primordial germ cells form early in embryonic development and are the first embryonic cells to undergo cellularization. Isolation of Drosophila egg chambers for imaging.
The Davis lab has published a brief jrnal useful guide on choosing imaging oogenesid that are well suited for Drosophila oogenesis [ ]. Several excellent methods papers describe these procedures in detail, and two have excellent accompanying video tutorials [ — ]. When recombination is induced in germ line stem cells or their progenitors, germ cells will be generated that are homozygous for the mutation of interest and, importantly, lack the ovo D1 mutation.
Mutations blocking oogenesis or altering egg morphology.
Methods for studying oogenesis
A high resolution view of the fly actin cytoskeleton lacking a functional WAVE complex. GFP-moesin illuminates actin cytoskeleton dynamics jurnwl living tissue and demonstrates cell shape changes during morphogenesis in Drosophila.
Examination of egg chamber assembly carried out in many laboratories has yielded a huge amount of information on stem cell and stem cell niche biology [ 78 ] and the origins of polarity [ 9 ]. A group of follicle cells with one level of reporter expression is often adjacent to another group with a very different level. Methods to manipulate gene expression during oogenesis 2. Two basic strategies have been developed to observe RNA localization in live ovaries: The best source for comprehensive general information is the Gal4 page of the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center BDSCalthough this page has limited information on expression.
A multitude of Gal4 lines is available from stock centers and labs that are useful for driving expression in specific cells of the ovary.
The original UASt vectors include P element ends for transformation and work very well in the somatic cells of the ovary; however, UASt-mediated expression is extremely poor in germline cells.
By the time an egg chamber emerges from the germarium, the oocyte is already positioned at the posterior as a result of a signaling cascade emanating from the next most mature egg chamber.
In addition to formaldehyde-based fixatives, other alternative fixations iurnal be used to preserve antigens or cellular structures that are not detectable using aldehyde fixation.
We anticipate that further improvements in live cell imaging methods combined oogenezis new genetic analysis tools will lead to many additional insights into the molecular mechanisms of ovarian development.
Open in a separate window. These ring canals do not grow in size during oogenesis, but they are able to support intercellular movement of protein between cells, raising the interesting possibility that they serve an important function in oogenesis [ 2021 ]. The ovarian tumor otu promoter produces low to moderate levels of germline expression throughout oogenesis, and the hsp26 promoter produces moderate levels of expression starting in stage 8 egg chambers.
RNAi in Drosophila has become an immensely powerful tool, and at least three genomic-scale projects have been undertaken with the goal of establishing transgenic RNAi lines for essentially all Drosophila genes [ 7677 ] and RNAi FLYunpublished available lines are listed at the following sites: The endocycle to amplification switch is mediated by down-regulation of Notch and activation of the Ecdysone receptor [ 33 ].
Female sterile mutations on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.
Methods for studying oogenesis
Epigenetic stability oogebesis extensively during Drosophila follicle stem cell differentiation. The polarization of oocytes is established during these stages as a consequence of the posterior location of the oocyte nucleus. Imaging live oogenesis The ability to conduct live-cell imaging experiments has had a significant impact on cell biological studies of Drosophila oogenesis.