Articles from Hassan Zaoual Published on Cairn International. Journal articles. couverture de [NUMERO_TITRE_ABREGE] · Development, Organizations, and. View the profiles of people named Hassan Zaoual. Join Facebook to connect with Hassan Zaoual and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power . Regular visitors to the Fez Festival of World Sacred Music will be saddened to hear of the death of Hassan Zaoual. Hassan had been a guest at.

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Learn more at Author Central. Hence one can assert that the proverbial saying of “not mixing business with feelings” is clearly not of African origin P.

THE VIEW FROM FEZ: Hassan Zaoual – dies in France

The popular economy is considered by some as the base of a new culture. The hybridization not only allows for the survival and hadsan progress of millions of Africans, but also corrupts the “formal” character of official life, of “the great society” S.

Behaviours and practices, which generally correspond to the “Informal sector”, are equally present in the so-called formal sector: The formal business sector, extroverted by neo-colonial economic logic, is too “rational” and “cold”.

Failing to attract royalty and adhesion, it becomes a place of corruption and spoils patronage. This sector rooted in a social fabric which itself is influenced by popular culture, constitutes an epistemological challenge to economic science and business management. A second confusion to be avoided is the introduction of the term “informal” sector hasasn opposed to the supposedly formal sector of African economies.

Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Popular economy, some observers claim, develops a culture of autonomy and independent labor.


In an enterprise organized according to factor “C”, it is necessary not only to develop factor “C” by generating income, but it is also essential to widen and intensify social relations. Economic activity is “rational” for neoclassical economists. These economic organisations respond to a multiplicity of objectives which are at the same time economic, social and cultural. In the economic sector as in the entrepreneurial sphere, one cannot lose sight of the cultural substratum R.

Instead, it is a community organized around a certain meaning.

The term “entrepreneurship” spontaneously evokes ideas of competition, free market, profit, rational calculation and efficient organisation which are generally associated with economics and the discipline of management.

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Hassan Zaoual

The term entrepreneurship engenders confusion where an objective reality is evoked as culturally neutral, when the entire issue is fundamentally cultural. Africa, hassam, approaches neither money nor profit, nor market nor management in a strict mechanical fashion, which would be operating zaouall to objective calculation and obeying the alleged universal rationality of homo-economicus.

This reference to the poor as actors underpins a number of analyses and, in particular, characterizes the interesting observations offered by Luis Razeto on the popular economy of Chile.

Low to High Price: The “poor” are actors. The “purely” economic aims are mixed up inside other motivations, particularly that haesan the group.

Belief in Taylorism’s “one best way” has encouraged mimicry. In this respect, technological and human capital serve as means toward this end. Such package is then rejected either by inertia and non-participation, either by perversion of its meaning H.

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Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. The ideal reference remains the “normal sector”, that is modern commercial enterprises, both public and private, with their representations and dominant paradigms: Learn more about Amazon Prime. Effectively, one observes the formalisation of the formal.


In the African mentality, the economic sector is not divorced zapual the affairs of daily life, in particular social bonds. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. For Luis Razeto, one should not take only capital and labor into account as economic factors. We are perhaps facing a new but lasting logic of zsoual. Indeed, what differentiates the economic factor in Africa from conventional Western conceptualization is that it is not considered an objective element. Africa is compelled to rationalise in a Weberian sense the economic activities and commercial enterprises, to embrace efficiency, calculability, the objective norms.

All kinds of cultural mixtures between Western and African culture, between modernity and tradition are found in hwssan “formal” as much as in the “informal” sector. Opinions diverge on these points. Experiences et theories French Zaokal. East Dane Designer Men’s Fashion. The development of this economy of the “people below” may lead to social, cultural and political change in Africa.

The need for urgent change can- not be fully met by the imposition of gassan and external models. The end product is a hybrid economy whose contemporary logic is an articulation of the capitalise mode with the non-capitalist, a blend of modernity with traditional means of operations H.

Factor “C” generates productivity and enjoys a self-generating existence and logic.