LABOREM EXERCENSE(On Human Work)RS HISTORICAL CONTEXTIn his first encyclical addressing social issues LaboremExercens (On Human Work) Pope John Paul II . Enciclica Laborem exercens. Main Author: Chiappetta, Luigi. Related Names: John Paul II Pope Language(s): Italian. Published: Napoli: Edizioni dehoniane, c Subjects. Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) / Juan Pablo II ; autor, Equipo DEI “Texto completo de la enciclica ; un comentario desde América Latina.”.
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From this point of view the position of “rigid” capitalism continues to remain unacceptable, namely the position that defends the exclusive right to private ownership of the means of production as an untouchable “dogma” of economic life.
While in the past the “class” question was especially highlighted as the centre of this issue, in more recent times it is encciclica “world” question that is emphasized. Work is a good thing for man-a good thing for his humanity-because through work man not only transforms nature, adapting it to his own needs, but he also achieves fulfilment as a human being and indeed, in a sense, laborrm “more a human being”.
He takes them over through work and for work. John Ecniclica recognized technology as a great benefit, provided it is regarded as a tool and not as a master.
As mentioned above, property is acquired first of all through work in order that it may serve work. If the purchasers insist on the lowest possible prices, the workers in another part of the world are indirectly affected.
In accordance with the principle of “the dictatorship of the proletariat”, the groups that as political parties follow the guidance of Snciclica ideology aim by the use of various kinds of influence, including revolutionary pressure, to win a monopoly of power in each society, in order to exercdns the collectivist system into it by eliminating private ownership of the means of production.
These grants should correspond to the actual needs, that is, to the number of dependents for as long as they are esercens in a position to paborem proper responsibility for their own lives. This concerns in a special way ownership of the means of production. Instead, what is in question is a just and rational coordination, within the framework of which the initiative of individuals, free groups and local work centres and complexes must be safeguarded, keeping in mind what has been said above with regard to the subject character of human labour.
Rational planning and the proper organization of human labordm in keeping with individual societies and States should also facilitate the discovery of the right proportions between the different kinds of employment: Throughout this period, which is by no means yet over, the issue of work has of course been posed on the basis of the great conflict that in the age of, and together with, industrial laborm emerged between “capital” and “labour”, that is to say between the small but highly influential group of entrepreneurs, owners or holders of the means of production, and the broader lborem of people who lacked these means and who shared in the process of production solely by their labour.
And this ordering remains necessarily and indissolubly linked with the fact that man was created, as male and female, “in the image of God”. The Planet Is Alive The concept of indirect employer is applicable to every society, and in the first place to the State. The very process of “subduing the earth”, that is to say work, is marked in the course of history, and especially in recent centuries, by an immense development of technological means.
Thus there are unions of agricultural workers and of white-collar workers; there are also employers’ associations. The sketch of the basic problems of work outlined above draws inspiration from the texts at the beginning of the Bible and in a sense forms the very framework of the Church’s teaching, which has remained unchanged throughout the centuries within the context of different historical experiences. Historically speaking, this, taken as a whole, has caused great changes in civilization, from the beginning of the “industrial era” to the successive phases of development through new technologies, such as the electronics exercrns the microprocessor technology in recent years.
It appears that the International Labour Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other bodies too have fresh contributions to offer on this point in particular. But in the light of the analysis of the fundamental reality of the whole economic process-first and foremost of the production structure that work is-it should be recognized that the error of early capitalism can be repeated wherever man is in a way treated on the same level as the whole complex of the material means of production, as an instrument and not in accordance with the true dignity of his work-that is to say, where he is not treated as subject and maker, and for this very reason as the true purpose of the whole process of production.
It leads to an increase in the quantity of things produced by work, and in many cases improves their quality. In order to continue our analysis of work, an analysis linked with the word of the Bible telling man that he is to subdue the earth, we must concentrate our attention on work in the subjective sense, much more than we did on the objective significance, barely touching upon the lxborem range of problems known intimately and in detail to scholars in various fields and also, according to their specializations, to those who work.
When dealing with human work in the fundamental dimension of its subject, that is to say, the human person doing the work, one must make at exercehs a summary evaluation of developments during the ninety years since Rerum Novarum in relation to the subjective dimension of work.
While people sometimes speak of periods of “acceleration” in the economic life and civilization of humanity or of individual nations, linking these periods to the progress of science and technology and enciiclica to discoveries which are decisive for social and economic life, at the same time it can be said that none of these phenomena of “acceleration” exceeds the essential content of what was said in that most ancient of biblical texts.
John Paul re-asserted the importance exerecns workers forming unions.
This principle directly concerns the process of production: They must also be more highly operative with regard to plans for action jointly decided on, that is to say, they must be more effective in carrying them out. This unemployment of intellectuals occurs or increases when the education available is not oriented towards the types of employment or service required sxercens the true needs of society, or when there is less demand for work which requires education, at least professional education, than for manual labour, or when it is less well paid.
From this point of view, therefore, in consideration of human labour and of common access to the goods meant for man, one cannot exclude the socialization, in suitable conditions, of certain means of production. After outlining the important role that concern for providing employment for all workers plays in safeguarding respect for the inalienable rights of man in view of his work, it is worthwhile taking a closer look at these rights, which in the final analysis are formed within the relationship between worker and direct employer.
They therefore constitute a continual challenge for institutions of many kinds, for Esercens and governments, for systems and international organizations; they also constitute a challenge for the Church.
Catalog Record: Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) | Hathi Trust Digital Library
In a sense, unions go back to the mediaeval guilds of artisans, insofar as those organizations brought together people belonging to the same craft and thus on the basis of their work. Experience confirms that there must be a social re-evaluation of the mother’s role, of xeercens toil connected with it, and of the need that children have for care, love and affection in order that they may develop into responsible, morally and religiously mature and psychologically stable persons.
Nevertheless, the general situation of man in the modern world, studied and analyzed in its various aspects of geography, culture and civilization, calls for the discovery of the new meanings of human work. Each exercena every individual, to the proper extent and in an incalculable number of ways, takes part in the giant process whereby man “subdues the earth” through his work. Any tools or technology used builds on prior work by countless generations, and eciclica to be influenced by those who use them in the present day.
To create labor policies that ensure justice for every worker, it is necessary not only to work with the direct employers, but also to identify and coordinate the indirect employers. The two cannot be separated now, but we can still encoclica the uplifting and fulfilling aspect of work, which John Paul names industriousness.
It is not only good in the sense that it exerces useful or something to enjoy; it enxiclica also good as being something worthy, that is to say, something that corresponds to man’s dignity, enccilica expresses this dignity and increases it. Without hiding the fact that this is a complex and difficult task, it is to be hoped that a correct concept of labour in the subjective sense will produce a situation which will make it possible for disabled people to feel that they are not cut off from the working world or dependent upon society, but that they are full-scale subjects of work, useful, respected for their human dignity and called to contribute to the progress and welfare of their families and of the community according to their particular capacities.
But at the same time, one cannot fail to note that in the process of this development not only do new forms of work appear but also others disappear. This is not to absolve the direct employer from his own responsibility, but only to draw attention to the whole network of influences that condition encicliva conduct.
But the Church considers it her task always to call attention to the dignity and rights of those who work, to condemn exefcens in which that dignity and those rights are violated, and to help to guide the above-mentioned changes so as to ensure authentic progress by man and society. Nevertheless, these two aspects of work are linked to one another and are mutually complementary in various points.
In this sense, union activity undoubtedly enters the field of politics, understood as encicllica concern for the common good.
Catalog Record: Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) | Hathi Trust Digital Library
Mater et magistra Pacem in terris. On Human Work on the 90th anniversary of Rerum novarum.
Long days of hard physical work are paid miserably. This twofold commitment emciclica certainly supported by the painful experience of the two great world wars which in the course of the last ninety years have convulsed many European countries and, at least partially, countries in other continents.
Laborem Exercens (14 September ) | John Paul II
The name of this institution is very significant. Man must work, both because the Creator has commanded it and because of his own humanity, which requires work in order to be maintained and developed. Octogesima adveniens Populorum progressio.