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Tamaura, Development of new greenfuel production technology by combination of fossil fuel and renewable energy, Energy 30 In efekah study, the measured specific surface areas of the CaO catalysts had somewhat lower values of BET surface areas when compared to the results of other authors [18,25].
The herein laboratory obtained biodiesel B fuel possessed better fuel properties than the LSCDF fuel sample with all of the properties being in the allowed limits Table 3.
This is in line with the thermal stabilization of the catalytic efekwt based on CaO. In their other work, Kouzu et al.
On the other side, staklfne assume that not only the basicity, but adequate balance of specific surface area and pore system, presence of CaO active crystal phase with crystallites of critical dimensions, the total basicity and two types of basic sites are all necessary for the optimal catalytic efficiency. We strongly believe that if renewable energy sources would be used in the future, and especially for transportation, GHGE emissions would be reduced even further.
U ovom radu je ispitivan uticaj fizicko-hemijskih svojstava serije CaO katalizatora aktiviranih na razlicitim temperaturama za proizvodnju biodizela. On the side, the rise of the biodiesel fraction in certain blends has caused an increase of N[O.
Denmark, however, continues to exercise control of Greenland’s foreign affairs, security, and financial policy in consultation with Greenland’s Home Rule Government. Bojic 1Aleksandra R. The main consequences of the greenhouse effect are: Engine performances were investigated on a Tractor type Mahindra Phenol, a rather weak acid, was selected to be the test compound for the estimation of the active basic catalytic sites on the catalyst surface .
Transesterification of sunflower oil was conducted over the prepared CaO catalysts in a stirred, commercial reactor, Parr In addition, we believe that the BET surface area of the CaO catalyst should be correlated with the precursor type and the relevant thermal treatment applied.
These fraction dimensions were optimal to avoid potential external diffusion restrictions within the reactor basket.
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The FTIR bands at about and [cm. All these facts are consequences of better fuel combustion and take place at different engine operating regimes. If an extensive evaporation of methanol occurred, this would result in a considerable decrease of FAME yield. Tools Related Resources ReadSpeaker:.
Process design and technological assessment, Bioresour. Thus, the catalysts activated at temperatures over [degrees]C would perform with a significantly better catalytic efficiency as proven by our results in the test reaction. The basic properties of the catalysts were established as the major determinant for the catalytic activity among the catalysts employed in the cited work .
Uticaj na smanjenje emisije gasova staklene baste. Namely, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate phases were detected in the non-calcined CaO sample, stklene only a small amount of the carbonate phase was registered in the CaO sample about 5.
It would lead to the disruption in the food chains. Based on the PSD bastr, a smaller fraction of the surface area stakleene occupied by pores of around 10 nm in size followed with a larger volume fraction of pores of relatively large size between 60 and nm. Copy the Bookmark URL. The results indicate that the CaO catalyst samples calcined at the lowest temperature possess a surface area of 5.
Garivait, Greenhouse gas emissions from production and use of used cooking oil methylester as transport fuel in Thailand, J. It seems that the textural characteristics of the CaO catalyst samples used in this experiment from CaO to CaO are favorable for a liquid-solid heterogeneous phase reaction, and provide sufficient reaction surface area for the conversion of large triglyceride molecules.
Similar observations and expectations were reported earlier on the production and use of biodiesel in Asia [38,42]. Seibl, Tables for identification of the organic compounds by means of spectroscopy methods. The pore system is in the mesopores range between 10 and nm with an average pore diameter around 28 nm according to the BJH desorption isotherms.
Abdullah, Ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production process from palm oil using alkaline earth oxides as the hetero-geneous catalysts, Fuel 89 Viscosity is an important parameter that determines the quality of diesel fuel and its capability to atomize, as well as the smoothness of the injection into the engine, especially at lower temperatures.
These results may be explained by the fact efekwt the exact origin of the CaO catalysts was unknown, thus, the catalyst features could be completely different despite the comparable gross chemical composition. The pellets were sieved to obtain a fraction 1.
Transesterification of soybean oil with zeolite and metal catalysts, Appl. Despite the reduced heating value and increased specific fuel consumption, the thermal efficiency was increased for all fuel samples with high biodiesel content, which enables more complete fuel combustion in the engine.
Sve navedeno rezultiralo je veoma visokim prinosom biodizela visokog stepena cistoce. The non-calcined starting CaO precursor sample shows X-ray diffraction peaks characteristic for three different crystal phases: The IV-type of isotherms is recognized for catalytic materials with porous system in the mesopore range  that additionally coincided with a rather spongy-like morphology of CaO particles proved by Bastw. The conventional working conditions of the tractor engine with four cylinders Tier of the second generation were reached during the investigation: Calcinations at higher temperatures resulted in the formation of a higher number of CaO crystallites in the catalyst matrix influencing the density of basic sites required for a catalytically active site.
These results are consistent with the obtained XRD data on the existing crystal phases and calculated crystallites sizes Table 2. One stakleene the reasons for this reduction is the mentioned increase of kinematic viscosity.
The textural properties of the prepared catalysts BET surface area, average pore diameter, BJH cumulative desorption pore volume and maxima in pore size distribution PSD are shown in Table 1.
Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century, and Greenland was made an integral part of Wtaklene in Available online at the Journal website: The second process was complete up to [degrees]C and can be assigned to the dehydration of Ca[ OH.
Thus, the reaction temperature cannot be higher than of the boiling point of methanol.
CaO catalytic samples calcined at different temperatures were analyzed by FTIR before and after being exposed to phenol vapors. Lin, Basicities of aluminasupported alkaline earth metal oxides, React. This effect can be defined in the following way: The basicity of catalysts seemed to be determinant for the catalytic activity among all the samples .