In contrast, the Dissocubes® technology employs piston-gap homogenizers. The technology was developed by Müller and colleagues (, ) and later. DissoCubes are part of Nanosuspension preparation. In which piston–gap high- pressure homogenization occurs. The main advantages of this technology. Employing piston-gap homogenizers, Müller and coworkers developed the Dissocubes technology (now belonging to Skyepharma plc) and the.

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Particle size reduction performance of standard and combinative technologies.

Nanocrystal technology, drug delivery and clinical applications

Differential scanning calorimetry and scanning thermal microscopy analysis of pharmaceutical materials. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, P. The HPH technique is a high-energy disintegration process that employs high pressure to reduce the particle size of drug particles in liquid media with surfactants for stabilization purposes.

Nanosuspension systems, Hamamatsu Nano technology. However, both technologies achieved homogeneous dispersed nanosuspensions with a low particle size. The combinative processes lead in general to improved particle size reduction effectiveness. Nanosuspensions as particulate drug formulations in therapy: A formulation approach for poorly-water-soluble compounds. However, it was difficult to establish a link between the DC and the smallest drug particle sizes with resveratrol as the model drug [ 40 ].

This technology involves a precipitation process lyophilization to produce nanocrystalline particles. However, the homogenization conditions were different: Flurbiprofen nanosuspensions covered by Eudragit polymers RS and RL exhibited prolonged drug release [ ]. Initially developed as a contraceptive, it was first evaluated in breast cancer treatment in An additional effect can be achieved by a controlled structural change in drug nanoparticles, which means reducing the crystallinity and increasing the amorphous fraction eg Dissocubes.

Precipitation of particles is another phenomenon that should be taken into account when considering stability of nanosuspensions. A microprecipitation-sonication process under controlled temperature was chosen to produce nanoparticles of the drug to eventually improve its dissolution rate-dependent bioavailability.

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Combinative Particle Size Reduction Technologies for the Production of Drug Nanocrystals

Poor solubility in water correlates with poor bioavailability. Nanosuspension consists of the pure poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion. Smaller or larger milling pearls are used as milling media.

If it is necessary to give a large dosage in order to achieve reasonable blood levels for poorly soluble drugs resulting in increased side effects, the nanocrystal technology allows for smaller doses and thus decreased side effects. Increase in saturation solubility of BaSO 4 in water as a function of the particle size calculated using the Kelvin equation.

SLR inhibits several cytokine induced signal transduction pathways by complexing the mTOR mammalian Target of Rapamycin protein, which is a kDA phosphatidyl 3 kinase. It is the production of nanoparticle suspensions in water at room temperature.

Further, the CT technology could drastically reduce the number of homogenization cycles to just techjology, which is more cost-effective [ 49 ]. In animal models, Semapimod has shown protective activity against a wide variety of conditions, ranging from stroke to inflammatory bowel disease. To receive news and publication updates for Journal of Nanomaterials, enter your email address in the box below.

Nanosuspension: An approach to enhance solubility of drugs

Small amounts of the surfactant positively impacted the characteristics of the spray-dried powders, such as flowability and millability. Drug nanocrystals with a size of about 50 nm and below are distinctly smaller than the wavelength of the visible light, and so the nanosuspensions are translucent.

The top-down step not only reduces the particle size but also stabilizes the drug nanocrystals with the energy application.

The drug nanosuspensions produced by this technology could achieve higher drug loads and a more flexible administration, such as oral and injectable routes [ 27 ]. The combinative particle size reduction techniques have been developed to overcome these drawbacks and to improve the particle size reduction effectiveness of the standard processes. The solution is heated at temperature higher than the melting point of the drug and then homogenized by high-speed homogenizer for the formation of emulsion.


The formulation for cosmetic and nutraceutical applications, such as those discussed by Petersen in the CT technology patent, has also been successful [ 6 ]. This technology has no marketed products to date, as I. This drug was dissolved in twchnology DMF and then precipitated by adding the drug solution to an aqueous solution containing surfactants.

The major disadvantage of this technique is dissocubes high number of passes through the microfluidizer and that the product obtained contains a relatively larger fraction of microparticles. The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market.

Journal of Pharmaceutics

They are also working on their substance NPI in a cream formulation, which is in clinical development to treat atopic dermatitis Bhol et al dissocubes Bol and Schechter a.

Passive targeting is based on pathophysiological characteristics etchnology to solid tumours: Measured intraocular pressure of normotensive Albino rabbits demonstrated that glucocorticoid drugs in the form of nanosuspensions unlike conventional dosage forms significantly increase the absorption rate and the therapeutic efficiency [ 68 ].

Metal contamination due to the erosion is less pronounced in this technique than in media milling.