DIN Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles. standard by Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V. DIN DE. Elektrische Anlagen in Wohngebäuden – Teil 1: Planungsgrundlagen (Foreign Standard). Diese Norm gilt für die Planung von. Draft standard DIN – Draft. Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles. German title: Elektrische.

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This being so, the estimate is quite likely to be still too high, since all risers have been calculated as being loaded with the entire current drawn by the building. We see that the payback periods — now for only one standard size up — rise to values of 30 or 25 years, respectively. Further arguments like resource savings and CO 2 reduction would still come on top — if not then, now they would. Using a relative indicator, e.

From a qualitative point of view let us stay with simplifying approach 2, of transferring the load profile that is valid for the system in question to the final circuits.

### Deutsches Kupferinstitut: Cable efficieny method

We must now look at how the expenditure required for this can be kept within reasonable limits. However, the synthesis of the two can be developed further:. But let us have one more look at the riser supplying a single home, a few or a multitude of homes. These result in payback times of 7 and 6 years, respectively.

According to Approach 1 Table 3 or Table 4, respectivelythis factor corresponds to the relevant geometric average between the smallest possible and the greatest possible current. In fact, every storey takes away its part of the load, and the last section is loaded only more with the current of two flats. Since the office has been in operation for 33 years already, an additional initial investment for conductors upsized to 2. It is also listed in the tables but has already been included in the calculation of the table.

Maximum and selected cable lengths; annual losses without electrical warm water supply.

Of course, the same load profile as for the one and only flat in the first line of the table was also applied to the respective riser. Data underlying the calculations according to Table Oberschwingungen Definitionen Spannung oder Strom?

The disadvantage is that this is of no use to us, since transferring the profile from the overall operation to these individual final circuits does not offer a solution. With all care that has to be taken with respect to the assumptions and simplifications made, the following results become obvious: However, the synthesis of the two can be developed further: Obviously, no relevant difference is seen by grid planners between this and an infinity of users.

Special contract customers Anomalies, characteristics, further action Example 2: A creative assumption is required again here, for so long already two calculation models are at hand: System Production of copper Recycling copper Availability of copper Life Cycle Corrosion behaviour copper materials Semi-finished copper products Copper composite materials.

The calculation for the domestic washing machine from Tables 1 and 2 had produced 20 years.

The installation method be B1 again. An individual dwelling — in effect a single-family home — causes losses worth around 40 cents annually.

## Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles

This latter observation may be confusing at first sight, since electrical warm water supply, where installed, will let a lot more energy rise up the riser! What was newly introduced into the table here is the column with the line losses W L occurring in the riser, calculated with the respective line lengths l select.

Cynics may claim this was common practice anyhow. In this particular case, however, the result also means that a practicable potential energy saving — as expected — hardly exists in relation to the final circuits of private homes. The riser need not be optimized anymore because it has already been energy optimized, although not for energy efficiency but other — compelling — reasons.

Applying the same procedure to the office from Table 4 turns the table straight away. Fortunately a helpful colleague had been prepared to restore the lost data underlying the diagram Fig. In other words, this is the root from the quotient of the least uniform by the most uniform load distribution across the year and across the circuits that is at all possible.

Analogous investigations should now be carried out for the other load profiles. So one ought to calculate with half the load as a mean or, alternatively, with half the real length, neither of which was done here. Introduction Approach 1 Approach 2 Attempt to develop a method Result: With all care that has to be taken with respect to the assumptions and simplifications made, the following results become obvious:.

This leads to the relatively high values of 7. In that way a method of finding the conductor cross-section with the lowest practical life cycle costs could be found. Maximum and selected cable lengths; annual losses with electrical warm water supply.

Even if the mentioned guesswork should be by a whole magnitude in error, this would not change anything about the result. In the first example Table 3 the factor F L is very high, since the junction box is only fully utilised on rare occasions on an annual average basis: The effect of the thermal heat that increases over-proportionately if the current is uneven is balanced out by correction factor F F of the load profile in question.

Only they are not sufficient to create a methodology for determining this optimum. Over the rest of the day, this larger cross section then reduces the losses. Good as it is so far, but now how to arrive at the losses?

As an overall result, it can be stated that the riser may just be missed out of this consideration right from the start.

If upgrading the conductor cross-section from 1. Proposal for a method Cable efficiency helpers Outlook. Due to the relatively coarsely tiered standard sizes and due to 18105-1 abrupt leap of the voltage drop from 0.

Despite all the uncertainty with this precise, but estimate-based calculation, the factor of 6, on the other hand, allows for quite a certain assumption that the additional investment would have paid off until today.

These give the values obtained if the degree of loading of the meter from examples H0 or G0 is transferred to the other load profiles and taken into account. Fluorescent Magnetic ballasts principle Magnetic ballast disturbances Compensation Electronic ballasts principle Electronic ballast disturbances Fluorescent lamp efficiency Leuchtstofflampen-Quecksilber. In the first example Table 3 the factor F L is very high, since the junction box is only fully utilised on rare occasions on an annual average basis:.