Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare birth defect in which a baby is born without part of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). Instead of. Esophageal atresia is the most common GI atresia. The estimated incidence is 1 in live births. Other congenital malformations are present in up to 50% of. Esophageal atresia is a congenital medical condition (birth defect) that affects the alimentary tract. It causes the esophagus to end in a blind-ended pouch rather.

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In some cases, the gap between the upper and lower segments of the esophagus is too large to permit the two segments to be reconnected. This causes air to pass from the windpipe to the oesophagus and stomach, and stomach acid to pass into the lungs. It causes the esophagus to end in a blind-ended pouch rather than connecting normally to the stomach.

It can be associated with disorders of the tracheoesophageal septum. Children’s Team Children’s Team. eaophagus

One such system is the Spitz classification: A method for repairing long-gap esophageal atresia using magnets has been developed, that does not require replacing the missing section with grafts of the intestine or other body parts. Familial syndromic cases account for less than 1 percent of all cases. In infants with respiratory failure, additional measures such as assisted ventilation may be required but should be used with extreme caution. Esophageal atresia is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy.

Diagnosis The diagnosis of EA may be suspected before birth because of the presence of a small or absent stomach bubble on a routine ultrasound examination performed after the 18th week of pregnancy. Oesophageal atresia is thought to be caused by a problem with the development of the oesophagus while the baby is in the womb, although it’s not clear exactly why this happens. Surgery is delayed to allow the continued growth of the esophagus which may take up to 3 months. Esophageal atresia EA is a rare birth defect in which a baby is born without part of the esophagus the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.


Nearly half of all babies born with esophageal atresia have one or more additional birth defects, such as other problems with the digestive system intestines and anusheart, kidneys, or the ribs or spinal column. The infant may become cyanotic turn bluish due to lack of oxygen and may stop breathing as the overflow of fluid from the blind pouch is aspirated sucked into the trachea.

Although this classification system is commonly used, it is not universal. Previous treatments involved stressful stretching of the esophagus, drastic repositioning of internal organs such as gastric and colon esophageal interposition.

Group 1 — birth weight greater than 1, grams approximately 3. Treatment may require the coordinated efforts of a team of specialists.

Imperforate anus Rectovestibular fistula Persistent cloaca Rectal atresia. If EA is suspected, the health care provider will try to pass a small feeding tube through the infant’s mouth or nose into the stomach. Less common are abnormalities of the neurological and musculoskeletal systems. Type C is the most common form. Retrieved 1 June The lower esophageal pouch connects abnormally to the trachea.

N Engl J Med. Affected children often experience recurrent chest infections particularly in the first few years after the repair. Without a working esophagus, it’s impossible to receive enough nutrition by mouth.

Surgery to repair the esophagus is done as soon as possible after birth so that the lungs are not damaged esopuagus the baby can be fed. If you are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant, talk with your doctor about ways to increase your chances of having a healthy baby.

Esophageal atresia EA is a congenital defect. Ewophagus following are the most common symptoms of TE fistula or esophageal atresia. Philadelphia, WB Saunders; A suction catheter is placed in the pouch at the end of the upper portion of the esophagus.


This means it occurs before birth. Several different surgical procedures have been created to treat long-gap esophageal atresia. All studies receiving U. It is characterized anatomically by a congenital obstruction of the esophagus with interruption of the continuity of the esophageal wall.

Pediatric Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Esophageal Atresia | Children’s National

Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: If resistance is noted, other studies will be done to confirm the diagnosis. Click here to view a larger image. The infant may breathe saliva and other fluids into the lungs, causing aspiration pneumonia, choking, and possibly death. Tests to check for the condition will be carried out after your baby is born, if they seem to be having problems swallowing or breathing.

Rare Disease Database

Which babies develop tracheoesophageal fistula or esophageal atresia? Tracheoesophageal fistula repair – series. A baby with this birth defect is unable to pass food from the mouth to the stomach, and sometimes difficulty breathing.

Its very commonly seen in a newborn with imperforate anus. A flexible approach to achieve a true primary repair for all infants with esophageal atresia. In most cases, surgery is performed shortly after birth.

These two conditions are not believed to be inherited.

Esophageal Atresia | Boston Children’s Hospital

Back to Health A-Z. At about four to eight weeks after conception, a esophagu forms between the fetus’ esophagus and trachea to separate them into two distinct tubes. This is sometimes referred to as pure esophageal atresia and accounts for approximately 8 percent of cases. Boston Children’s Hospital has been named the 1 children’s hospital in the nation by U. How can we help?

In the s a further refinement was developed by Mario Zaritzky ‘s group and others.