The revelations of Arda Viraz (‘righteous Viraz’), or Viraf, as his name has been transcribed in Persian, were written in Pahlavi (pre-Islamic. The Main Argument is Revolved around Arda Wiraz Namag. the Arda Viraf Namag is a Collection of Parsi Legends and has a Story of a man. And as the two oldest and most valuable MSS. of the Arda Viraf namak are in Europe, the one being- deposited in the Uni- versity Library al Copenhagen (Xo.

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His translation contains all that is in H28 except the equi- valent of ch. Diiist Upamman lak, yasharubo Ar- ddi Viraf, Maz- tat yat iiktamasti gliordndhakdrdt naraJcdf; mama evam pratihMti, yatlid Jcila Mqmlio yo lalcshaikahuntanimnah. Den- man rubdn-i valman 3, G. Ardaa I asked Srosh the pious, and Adar the angel, thus: Hig adds a saJchun.

Full text of “The book of Arda Viraf”

srda Heeren first expressed the opinion that, as the persecution of foreign religions was quite contrary to Alexander’s policy, this statement of the Parsis was not to be credited; and his opinion has been generally adopted by later writers, without further examination.

This habit accounts for the total disappearance of these Semitic words, as soon as the PahUm character was disused; see Ilaug’s Essay on Pahlavi, p.

I also saw the soul of a man who was held in the atmosphere, 2 and fifty demons ever flogged him, before and behind, with darting serpents. Women who were starv- ing their own children by giving them no milk, or killing them, have generally to dig a hill with their breasts Denman zak av ait mun zak chiba bara tajid-i lak madam val li hankhetimad.

By drinking it, the soul is supposed to become oblivious of all worldly cares and concerns, and is thus pre- pared for eternal happiness.

The transliteration of final is complicated with a question of or- thography which leads to much uncertainty and requires careful consi. Denman taPxii maman vanas kard?


After having witnessed the arxa punishments which were in- flicted in hell for the crimes and offences mentioned, Viraf was carried back to the mountain Chakat-i-Daitih i below which the Chinvat bridge is situated, into a desert, and shown hell in the earth J only in D. Now he describes hell. Then I saw the soul of a woman who ever dug a hill with her breasts; 2 and was ever thirsty and hungry.

The Book of Arda Viraf: A Dantesque Vision of Heaven and Hell

It was accompanied by a very ugly viraaf representing its evil thoughts, words and deeds. In ardaa Ascension of Isaiah, there are rulers men- tioned over each heaven ; but in the Arda-Yiraf nothing of this kind is found, nor are the angels on the right and the left side of the throne, which constantly occur in the former, mentioned in the latter.

I also saw souls who were vuraf under the feet of cattle, 2 struck by the horns, and their bellies torn, and bones broken; and they were groaning. LXxix sliakhun asbnud, awar 6 pae eslitad, 22 vash dasht pa kash kard, guft 23 ku: But notwithstanding such a Introductory Virqf.

Then I saw the soul of a woman 2 whose breasts they cut off; and her belly was torn, and the entrails given to the dogs. I also saw the pre-eminent world of the pious, which is the all-glorious light of space, much perfumed with sweet basil, all-bedecked, all-admired, and splendid, full of glory and every joy and every pleasure, 22 with which no one is satiated.

In heaven, Viraf meets Ahura mazda who shows him the souls of the blessed ahlav. Thus again the theme of doubt is implied in a piece of visionary literature. Li; Hig barahunash, I’ers. Destur Hoshangji considers it as a representative of any final vowxl, in the same way as f and X are representatives of a short initial vowel, and he extends this hypothesis to many cases where arxa j takes the place of a and i in the cognate languages; this was evidently the “opinion of most of the writers of modern MSS.


H Afam pursid iiiiu piruzkar Srosh-yashariibo, va Ataro yedato, aigh: Arva only exceptions which have been made to the general rules, are in the following words: I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever licked a hot oven with her tongue, 3 and ever burnt her own hand under the oven.

Did Islam Copy From Zoroastrianism? | SONS OF SUNNAH

One evening previous to taking the Dhattura seed, ‘two, or more, women go to the tree from which the seed is to be taken, ‘and give it an invitation thus: From the number of the priests who were assembled, the sum total of which is not stated in the original, seven were elected.

The Frobag fire is there said to have been first established in the dtcsh-gdli on the mountain Gadman-homand in Khvarizem Z. The souls which Viraf met in the first three paradiseswere sitting on thrones and shining with the radiance of the stars, the moon and the sun, respectively. Denman gabrd maman vanas kard, mun rCihund angun giran padafras yedruned? I also saw the souls of several people 2 whom they cause to weep; and they ever make piteous cries.

Encyclopædia Iranica

K,o omits final f. It is true, the good works appear, according to Mohamedan notions, in the shape of a man who is splendidly dressed and per- fumed Mohamedanische Eschatologie, iibersetzt von Dr.

And afterward, the lots of those Mazdayasnians and me were drawn; 43 the first time with the word ‘well-thought,’ and the second time with the word ‘well-said,’ and the third time with the word ‘well-done’; each of the three lots came to Viraf.

First, virat forming ad- verbs from adjectives like the English suffix -hjin which case, it is transliterated -yish, being taken as a Semitic suffix, see Hang’s Essay on Pahlavi, p.